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中国“黑监狱”情况让人担忧/路透社

By Chris Buckley
   Reuters
   Published: February 9, 2009
    骆秋华/译
   

   
   联合国人权理事会于星期一在日内瓦召开会议。此会议为政府、团体施压于北京关于秘密执行,拘留持有不同政见者的监狱,劳教所和其他形式的拘留持有不同意见者提供了机会。
   
   然而,关于中国对国人的限制的争论不限于国际会议室。在家的活跃分子也被激发了,最近很多人都在反对没经过正当程序审讯或没有上诉权利而关押犯人的拘留所,这些拘留所在中国当地被称为“黑监狱”。
   
   “这些黑监狱显然是违法的。但当地官员却称之为法律学习班,同时宣称法律是我们诉求权利的工具”,江苏省一活跃分子张建平说。
   
   尽管中国g cd 对异议者审查和压制,但对权利要求声势在这个日益多样化、浮躁的社会越来越浩大。
   
   一些人权倡导者说拘留应该是联合国对中国“定期审查”的头等事件。
   
   “在某种意义上说,这是最大的人权问题,因为它涉及如此多人,相当普遍,却法律的公正”,一北京讲师、人权倡导者许志永说,他曾组织 “游击”市民挽救因请愿而被拘留的人。
   
   来自湖北省的郑大靖说,曾关押过他的拘留所里面的小场地挂着横幅,声称为“法律教育课堂”但是在他家乡郧西一个废弃的烟草买卖站,他已被关押一年多的地方没有一本课本,也没有一堂课。
   
   “里面有一条幅说这是让我们了解法律制度的。但是那里没有任何学习或法律”,一银行营业员郑氏说,他曾由于自置居所的争端而被拘留,“看守一天到晚在玩麻将和牌。”
   
   他是每年都有成百上千到北京上诉委员会请愿的公民之一。上诉委员会是为冤屈的市民提供帮助的地方。
   
   但很少有人诉求会得到解决,而请愿者的积怨往往持续深化。地方政府有时使用警察和打手引诱,哄骗或拖曳请愿者远离政府办公室。
   
   这些愤愤不平者,大多是农民,工人和退休工人,在当时都被关押在不张扬拘留所的。这些拘留所往往是位于北京南部的郊区或其他城镇僻径。郑说,他曾从首都的一个黑监狱被带到他家乡的黑监狱,并被关押到去年年底.
   
   他的主张得到八个其他请愿者的响应。他们说起一些鲜为人知的拘留地方,这些往往都是当地政府的首脑为了让囚犯远离视线。
   
   郧西的警察官严志平否认请愿者被扣留在所谓的“法律教育”中心而且说他们对请愿者都是礼貌对待的。但是三个郧西的上诉人(除郑之外)说他们也一度被关押在烟草站。
   
   “警察告诉我要到这学习法律。但是他们才真正需要学习法律,”一中年之前在郧西当士兵的袁荣宝说。他因去年到北京抱怨他家乡的遗迹被破坏而被关押在烟草站一星期。
   
   中国在对联合国的报告中称会严格限制拘留。一个由律师和其他活跃分子组成的团体不同意这个说法,而且他们正在挑战关押请愿者的这些监狱。
   
   自去年来,人权倡导者许先生和一日益壮大的志愿者团队未经申请便突然访问北京数十个甚至更多的关押请愿者的监狱并要求释放被关押者。
   
   在最近的一次运动中,30名示威者挥舞者中国法律小册子来抗议不法的监禁并将摄影镜头对准惊慌的看守。关于抗议者的报告和画面已经在互联网广泛传播,伴随着批评性评论将施压于政府官员,许先生说。
   
   一参与了反对黑监狱的游行示威的北京人权律师滕彪表示:打击这种侵权活动需要国内外的支持。
   
   “我们需要外部的压力和监督”,他说,“但是真正的改善需要国内的突破,国内的运动。如果做不到这点的话,人权就不会扎根于此。”
   
   BEIJING (Reuters) – China defends its handling of human rights under the glare of international scrutiny this week, while homegrown activists are waging their own scrappier battle over secretive detentions in the nation's capital.
   
   A meeting of the U.N. Human Rights Council starting in Geneva on Monday gives groups and governments a chance to press Beijing on secretive executions and jailed dissidents as well as labor camps and other forms of detention.
   
   Yet contention over China's restrictions on its citizens is not confined to international conference rooms. Activists at home have also been galvanized, most recently against what locals call "black jails" -- detention centers holding protesters without official procedures or right to appeal.
   
   "These black jails are clearly against the law. But local officials call them legal study classes, and that shows how they treat the law as just a tool for abusing rights," said Zhang Jianping, an activist in eastern Jiangsu province who runs a website focused on grassroots rights issues.
   
   Despite the ruling Communist Party's censorship and crackdowns on dissent, demands for rights are spreading throughout this increasingly diverse and fractious society.
   
   Some rights advocates said the detentions should be a top issue at the three-day U.N. "universal periodic review" of China, which opens while some countries may be more focused on Beijing's potential role in reviving the global economy.
   
   "In a sense, this is the biggest human rights issue, because it involves so many people, it's so widespread, and it's so lacking in legal justification," said Xu Zhiyong, a Beijing law lecturer and rights advocate who has organized "guerrilla" citizen rescues of detained petitioners.
   
   "LAW EDUCATION CLASS"
   
   Zheng Dajing, from central Hubei province, said the detention center he was held in was called a "law education class" on banners inside its small grounds. But there were no textbooks or lectures in the disused tobacco-buying station in his home county of Yunxi that he said became his jail for over a year.
   
   "A banner inside said it was for us to learn about the legal system. But there was no study or law in there," said Zheng, a plump 46-year-old former bank clerk whose grievances snowballed from a row over home ownership.
   
   "The guards spent all day playing mahjong and cards."
   
   He was one of many tens of thousands of citizens who every year travel to Beijing to complain at government "petitions and appeals" offices promising to help settle citizens' grievances.
   
   But few complaints are resolved and the petitioners' rancor and persistence often deepen. Local governments sometimes use police and hired thugs to lure, cajole or drag petitioners away from government offices, where their complaints may embarrass local leaders and stain their promotion prospects.
   
   The aggrieved farmers, workers and pensioners are then held in the unadvertised detention centers, many on Beijing's southern outskirts and the backroads of other cities and towns. Zheng said he was hauled into one such "black jail" in the capital, driven back to one in his hometown and locked up until late last year.
   
   "Local leaders want to protect themselves, so they try to hide us away, hide away our complaints," said Zheng.
   
   His claims were echoed by eight petitioners interviewed by Reuters. They spoke of cramped, dank, sometimes violent holding yards or rooms, often run by bosses who charge local governments to keep inmates out of sight for days, weeks or months.
   
   When called by Reuters, Yan Zhiping, the police chief of Yunxi, denied petitioners were detained there in a "law education" center and said they were all treated with "civility."
   
   But three petitioners from Yunxi, found independently of Zheng, said they were also held in the one-time tobacco station.
   
   "The police told me I was there to learn the law. But they're the ones who need to learn the law," said Yuan Rongbao, a middle-aged ex-soldier from Yunxi who said he was also held in the station for a week last year after going to Beijing to complain about the demolition of his home.
   
   FIGHTING WITH VIDEO AND THE INTERNET
   
   China says in its report to the U.N. meeting that it strictly limits detentions. A chorus of Chinese lawyers and activists disagrees, and now they are challenging the petitioner jails.
   
   Since last year, Xu, the rights advocate, and an expanding team of volunteers have been descending unannounced on some of Beijing's dozen or more bigger petitioner jails, often kept down isolated byways, to demand the release of detainees.
   
   In one recent raid, 30 clean-cut protesters waved copies of China's laws against unlawful jailing and aimed video cameras at startled guards. Accounts and footage of their protests have spread over the Internet, and with other critical reports they are raising pressure on officials, said Xu.
   
   "The black jails are still there and are still totally illegal, but we think their violence has fallen and they don't beat us up like they did when we started," he said. Rattled officials have sometimes released petitioners, he added.
   
   At peak times, such as during major political meetings, the larger "underground" detention centers in Beijing alone hold many hundreds, waiting to be shunted out of the capital, he estimated.

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